Rosh Hashanah is a Jewish anniversary appearance the aboriginal and added canicule of the Jewish year. (In 2018, Rosh Hashanah begins at dark on Sunday, September 9, and continues through black on Tuesday, September 11). It’s the day G‑d created Adam and Eve, and it’s acclaimed as the arch of the Jewish year.
For added apprenticeship apropos this year, see our Rosh Hashanah calendar.
A Yemenite Jew assault shofar (circa 1930s).
The axial acknowledgment of Rosh Hashanah is audition the aural of the shofar,the ram’s horn. It is a account to hear the shofar on both mornings of the anniversary (except if the aboriginal day is Shabbat, in which case we alone draft the shofar on the added day).
The aboriginal 30 blasts of the shofar are absolute afterward the Torah-reading during morning services, and as abounding as 70 are again absolute during (and anon after) the Musaf service. For someone who cannot appear to synagogue, the shofar may be absolute the blow of the day. If you cannot accomplish it out, amuse acquaintance your aing Chabad centermost to see about alignment a “house call.”
Click actuality to apprentice added about the shofar and its significance.
Shabbat and anniversary dinners are ushered in with candle lighting (Photo: Mushka Lightstone).
As with every aloft Jewish holiday, women and girls ablaze candles on anniversary evening of Rosh Hashanah and recite the adapted blessings. On the added night (or if lighting afterwards black on the aboriginal night), accomplish abiding to use an existing flame. Think about a new bake-apple that you will be bistro (or apparel that you are wearing) while you say the Shehechiyanu blessing.
Click actuality for candle-lighting times in your area.
We eat blithe commons every night and day of the holiday. Like all added holiday meals, we activate by reciting kiddush over wine and again say the absolution over bread. But there are some important differences, as we’ll explain below.
Round challah is a acceptable Rosh Hashanah treat.
The aliment (traditionally broiled into annular challah loaves, and generally sprinkled with raisins) is biconcave into honey instead of salt, cogent our ambition for a candied year. We do this on Rosh Hashanah, Shabbat Shuvah (the Shabbat afore Yom Kippur), in the pre-Yom Kippur meal and during Sukkot.
On Rosh Hashanah, we eat amethyst to ask G-d that our claim accumulate like the seeds of this adorable fruit.
Furthering the candied theme, it is acceptable to activate the meal on the aboriginal night with slices of angel biconcave in honey. Afore bistro the apple, we make the ha’eitz absolution and again say, “May it be Your will to renew for us a acceptable and candied year.”
Many bodies eat genitalia of the arch of a fish or a ram, cogent the ambition that “we be a arch and not a tail.”
In abounding communities, there are added acceptable foods eaten, each emblematic a ambition for the advancing year. Abounding eat pomegranates, giving articulation to a ambition that “our claim be abounding like the [seeds of the] pomegranate.” Addition accepted aliment is tzimmes, a sweet, carrot-based bowl eaten because of its Yiddish name, merren, which agency both “carrot” and “increase,” emblematic a ambition for a year of abundance.
(Read about the busy arrangement of allegorical foods eaten in Sephardic communities here.)
It is acceptable to abstain basics (here’s why) as able-bodied as vinegar-based, sharp foods, best conspicuously the horseradish traditionally eaten with gefilte fish, back we don’t appetite a absinthian year.
On the added night of the holiday, afore we breach aliment (and dip it in honey), we eat a “new fruit,” article we accept not tasted back the aftermost time it was in season. (Read this blog column to apprentice the acumen for the new bake-apple and the added acceptable foods.)
When you accommodated a adolescent Jew on the aboriginal night of Rosh Hashanah, ambition him, “Leshana tovah tikatev v’tichatem,” or, for a female, “Leshana tovah tikatevee v’tichatemee” (“May you be inscribed and closed for a acceptable year”). After the aboriginal night, ambition them a “G’mar chatimah tovah” (“A acceptable inscription and sealing [in the Book of Life]”). (More on the Rosh Hashanah greetings here.)
Credit: Collection of Yeshiva University Museum
On the aboriginal afternoon of Rosh Hashanah (provided that it is not Shabbat), it is accepted to go to a anatomy of baptize (ocean, river, pond, etc.) and accomplish the Tashlich ceremony, in which we ceremonially casting our sins into the water. With this attitude we are symically evoking the ballad “And You shall casting their sins into the base of the sea.” The abbreviate adoration for this account can be begin in your machzor.
Much of the day is spent in the synagogue. The black and afternoon prayers are agnate to the prayers said on a approved holiday. However, the morning services are decidedly longer.
The anniversary prayerbook—called a machzor—contains all the prayers and Torah readings for the absolute day. The best cogent accession is the shofar-blowing ceremony. However, there are additionally added important elements of the adoration account that are different to Rosh Hashanah.
The Torah is apprehend on both mornings of Rosh Hashanah.
On the aboriginal day, we apprehend about Isaac’s bearing and the consecutive adjournment of Hagar and Ishmael (Genesis 21:1–34). Appropriately, the account is followed by a haftarah reading about the bearing of Samuel the Prophet (I Samuel 1:1–2:10). There is a accepted affair in these readings: prayers for accouchement were answered, and both births took abode on Rosh Hashanah.
On the added morning, we apprehend about Abraham’s near-sacrifice of his son Isaac, a able affectation of Abraham’s adherence to G‑d, which has characterized His accouchement anytime back (Genesis 22:1–24). As mentioned above, the shofar-blowing recalls the ram, which abstracts acutely in this story. The haftarah tells of G‑d’s eternal adulation for His bodies (Jeremiah 31:1–19).
(More on the Torah readings for Rosh Hashanah here.)
The accessible ark in the capital altar of Lubavitch Chabad of Skokie.
The cantor’s alliteration of the Amidah (Silent Prayer) is brindled with piyyutim, anapestic prayers that accurate our adherent wishes for the year and added themes of the day. For assertive selections, those accounted abnormally powerful, the ark is opened. Abounding of these additions are meant to be said responsively, as a collective accomplishment amid the adoration baton and the congregation.
Even after the added piyyutim, the Rosh Hashanah Musaf adoration is decidedly best than it is the blow of the year. This is because its distinct average absolution is disconnected into three additional blessings, anniversary absorption on addition one of the holiday’s capital themes: G‑d’s kingship, our ambition that He “remember” us for the good, and the shofar. Each absolution contains a collage of biblical verses that accurate its theme, and is again followed by a annular of shofar-blowing.
Lulavim and etrogim for auction in Israel above-mentioned to Sukkot (file photo).
Rosh Hashanah is the alpha of the Yamim Nora’im (High Holidays). The angelic day of Yom Kippur, back we accumulate in the synagogue for 25 hours of fasting, adoration and inspiration, is aloof a anniversary later. The days in amid (known as the 10 Canicule of Repentance, or the Ten Canicule of Return) are an abnormally advantageous time for teshuvah, abiding to G‑d. Yom Kippur is followed by the joyous holidays of Sukkot and Simchat Torah.
The division of the High Holidays is an ballsy adventure for the soul, and Rosh Hashanah is area it all begins.
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